This lecture begins with the oral tradition of the Indigenous people in North America as a method for recording and telling ancient history. In Canada, oral tradition is accepted as legal evidence in cases involving Indigenous land rights. Indigenous accounts of their origins are contrasted with the archaeological interpretations of Indigenous origins in the Americas. Archaeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence is summarized pointing to an entry of modern humans into the Americas about 15,000 years ago. The lecture ends with a presentation of the Kennewick Man story – Indigenous repatriation of very ancient skeletal remains and the politics surrounding the scientific investigation of the first peoples of the Americas.

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